Multifocal / Multisite tCS targeting

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In this page we provide some background information on the logic behind Multifocal / Multisite stimulation of the brain. We recall here that StarStim is a true tCS multichannel system, and as such it can be used for advanced global stimulation of the cortex.

Based on a user defined cortical target map we can consider the optimization of montages (electrode locations and currents) based on such target maps. This applies to tDCS but also to tACS or tRNS stimulation protocols.

MtCS offers the possibility of more targeted focal stimulation through the use of one electrode over the target area and the use of several return electrodes. See our section Montages for tCS as an example. However, MtCS offers much more: true, global targeting of the cortex.


Papers on this topic are now available online. Here are a few:

Ruffini et al., 2018, Targeting brain networks with multichannel transcranial current stimulation (tCS)

Giulio Ruffini, Michael D. Fox, Oscar Ripolles, Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Optimization of multifocal transcranial current stimulation for weighted cortical pattern targeting from realistic modeling of electric fields, available online, Dec 15, Neuroimage (2013).

Fisher et al., 2017, Multifocal tDCS targeting the resting state motor network increases cortical excitability beyond traditional tDCS targeting unilateral motor cortex

Dagan et al., 2018, Multitarget transcranial direct current stimulation for freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease

Otal et al, 2016, Opportunities for Guided Multichannel Non-invasive Transcranial Current Stimulation in Poststroke Rehabilitation